Prepare the grill for direct cooking over medium-high heat (400° to 500°F) and preheat a grill-proof Dutch oven for 10 minutes.
Season the beef chuck pieces with 1 teaspoon of the salt and the pepper. Warm the oil in the Dutch oven over direct medium-high heat. Add half of the beef and cook, with the grill lid closed, until browned on a couple sides, about 5 minutes, stirring once. Transfer the browned beef to a plate. Brown the remaining beef in the same way.
To the Dutch oven with the second batch of beef, add the first batch of beef and the onion and cook over direct medium-high heat, with the grill lid closed, until the onion is slightly softened, about 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add the jalapeño and garlic and cook until fragrant, about 1 minute, stirring occasionally. Add the broth, tomatoes, masa harina, brown sugar, cumin, paprika, oregano, smoked paprika, and the remaining 1 teaspoon salt. Mix well. Bring to a boil.
Lower the temperature of the grill to medium-low heat (about 300°F). Move the Dutch oven over indirect medium-low heat, close the grill lid, and simmer until the beef is fork-tender, 1½ to 1¾ hours, stirring occasionally. During the last 15 minutes of cooking time, stir in the beans and hot pepper sauce.
Remove the Dutch oven from the grill, skim off and discard any grease from the surface, and stir in the lime juice. Ladle the chili into bowls and serve warm with cheese, scallions, jalapeño, and sour cream.